Electric cars and how work were prevalent in early 20th century, when electricity was preferred in automobile propulsion.
Advances in internal combustion technology, especially the electric starter, the greater range of gasoline cars, quicker refueling times, and growing petroleum infrastructure, along with the mass production of gasoline vehicles reduced prices of gasoline cars to less than half that of equivalent electric cars, which led to the decline of electric propulsion.
An Electric car is powered by an Electric Motor rather than a Gasoline Engine.The Electric Motor gets its power from a controller. The Controller is powered from an array of rechargeable batteries.
Electric cars can use AC as well as DC motors. DC motors run on a voltage ranging roughly between 96 to 192 volts. Most of them come from Forklift Industry. Another feature of DC motors is that they can be overdriven for short periods of time (up to a factor of 10), which is good for short bursts of acceleration. One limitation is the heat build up. May lead to self destruction.
Due to these limitations and other advantages provided by AC motors (like better torque and speed output, for same weight and size), DC motors are not used.
Any of the industrial 3 – phase AC motors can be used. They allow the use of regenerative braking.
An AC controller creates 3 pseudo sine waves which are 120 degree apart (3-phase AC).Using six sets of power transistors, the controller takes in 300 volts DC and produces 240 volts AC, 3-phase.
Lead acid batteries used, until recently. A weak link in the electric cars. Heavy, Bulky, limited capacity (12 – 15 kilowatt hours), slow charging rate, short life and expensive. NiMH batteries give double the range and last 10 years, but expensive. Lithium ion and NiMH batteries likely to be used if their prices can be made competitive with lead acid batteries for how electric cars work .
Charging done from power grid (household/ charging station). A good charger monitors battery voltage, current flow and battery temperature to minimize charging time. 120/240 Volts. Part of the controller/separate box. Magna – charge inductive charging system.