Networking

inter access point protocol

In July 2003, IEEE 802.11f, a recommended practice for multivendor interoperability by the inter-access point protocol (IAPP), got standardized. The recommended practice describes a service access point (SAP), service primitives, a set of functions, and a protocol for APs to interoperate on a common distribution system (DS), using Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or User Datagram …

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open settlement protocol

The Open Settlement Protocol (OSP) is a client-server protocol (that consists of a set of protocols and associated profiles) defined by the ETSI TIPHON to establish authenticated connections between gateways/servers, and allows gateways and servers to transfer accounting and routing (optionally) information securely. OSP allows service providers to deliver multimedia services without establishing direct peering …

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media gateway protocol

Media gateway protocol is used for interconnecting two networks, for us the IP and the PSTN networks. The Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP), developed by IETF, and Megaco, developed by IETF and ITU-T (recommendation H.248), are two protocols used by the media gateways. MGCP defines a gateway that focuses on the audio signal translation function, …

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real time streaming protocol

The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) is used to establish and control timesynchronized streams of continuous audio and video. Sources of data can include both real-time and stored clips. During an RTSP session, an RTSP client may open and close many reliable transport connections to the server to issue RTSP requests. Alternatively, it may use …

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voice communication

Voice communication is a real-time communication, which means it has severe delay constraints . Dedicated systems for voice do not face any problems considering delay but in a system made for asynchronous data transmission it will become a big issue. In the following subsections the challenges that will be faced during VoWLAN product development and …

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tkip

TKIP was developed to provide an intermediary solution until the AES solution was available and to be usable with the existing hardware. Thus TKIP can counter most of the security issues in WEP. The mechanisms that TKIP makes use of are the message integrity check (MIC) value called Michael, the extended IV as TKIP sequence …

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virtual area network

A virtual area network connects the components and resources of one network over another network by allowing the user to tunnel through the Internet or another public network, giving the participants the same security and features as those available in private networks [64]. VPNs allow telecommuters, remote employees, or even branch offices to connect in …

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network address translation

Due to lack of IPv4 addresses there are some non-routable private addresses ;these are Class A from 10.0.0.0 until 10.255.255.255, Class B from 172.16.0.0 until 172.16.255.255, and Class C 192.168.0.0 until 192.168.255.255. When communication between devices with the non-routable or private network address is needed with a device in a public network (like the Internet) …

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MEDIUM ACCESS CONTROL LAYER

The 802.11 basic medium access CONTROL LAYER behavior allows interoperability between compatible PHYs through the use of the CSMA/CA protocol and a random backoff time following a busy medium condition. In addition, all directed traffic uses immediate positive acknowledgment (ACK frame), where the sender schedules a retransmission if no ACK is received. The 802.11 CSMA/CA …

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