Electrical Engineering

Light units

Light is a physical phenomenon but is interpreted by psychological processes in our brain. It is, therefore, a bit more complex to measure than other physical processes. Some prerequisites have to be established in order to make objective measurements. One of these is the bandwidth of the light frequencies considered, and this is usually from …

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depth of field

When a lens is focused on an object, theoretically, the whole plane passing through the object and perpendicular to the optical axis should be in focus. Practically, objects slightly in front of and behind the object in focus will also appear sharp. This “extra” depth of sharpness is called depth of field. A wide depth …

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Refraction

When a light ray traveling through air or a vacuum enters a denser medium, it reduces its speed by index of refraction. Different media (which are transparent to light) have different indices of refraction. For example, the speed of light in air is 300,000 km/s and almost the same as in vacuum. If a light …

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contactless cards

The techniques used with contactless cards for transferring energy and data are not new. They have been common knowledge for many years in radio-frequency identification (RFID) systems, which have been used for a variety of applications, such as animal implants and transponders for electronic anti-start systems for vehicles. There are many techniques for identifying persons …

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Electrified Locks

The selection of the correct electrified locks is critical t. Where improper locks are used, we suffers from any of the following problems: Failure to comply with code Improper function, causing traffic queues Unsafe exiting conditions Unreliable lock operation resulting in frequent maintenance Persons trapped within a space during an emergency Types of Electrified Locks …

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fire rated doors

Doors and frames are fire rated together as an assembly, not individually as pieces. The integrity of the door assembly is critical to the success of the assembly to achieve and maintain its fire rating. Any penetrations into the door or frame will affect the ability of the assembly to hold its rated resistance to …

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Door Types and Door Frames

A door can be evaluated on a number of important criteria: They must block passage They must open and close easily They should be robust against intrusion They should fit the visual aesthetics of the environment in which they are mounted The basic door is the standard Single- and Double-Leaf Swinging Door. This door includes …

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Access Control System Server and Workstation

Access Control System Server store all of the system configurations and historical data, manage communications throughout the system, and serve the Workstations with real-time data and reports. Servers also control so-called “Global” system decisions or functions that span across multiple Access Control Panels. The Access control System Server is the all-seeing, all-knowing entity that completely …

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Access Control Panels and Networks

Access Control Panels perform the heavy lifting in Alarm/Access Control Systems. Every single function that Access Control Systems perform in the real world occurs first in the “mind” of an Access Control Panel. All Access Control Panels share certain attributes and components. Alarm Input and Output Control Components may be internal or external to the …

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