Lighting is generally divided into three types :
- General lighting usually consists of ceiling-mounted luminaires placed with the same distance between them and half the distance to the wall. General lighting provides the required illuminance all over and complete furnishing ﬂexibility. The overall appearance might not be appealing and energy consumption is higher than for the next two types of lighting as the lighting is not adapted to different needs in the room.
- Localised lighting consists of ceiling-mounted luminaires at each work station that provide the necessary task illuminance plus sufﬁcient broad light distribution for walking areas. Compared to general lighting, the energy consumption is lower but there is reduced ﬂexibility in placing the work stations. Localised lighting also includes decorative lighting e. g. to display architectural details and paintings.
- Local lighting includes lighting that can be moved around along with work stations plus general lighting for walking areas. The beneﬁts are: 1) ﬂexible placement of work stations, 2) better energy efﬁciency than for solely general lighting, and 3) the staff can control all their own lighting (some of the localised lighting might be shared by workers). Local lighting can refer to table lamps, up-lighters and built into furniture where LED lighting is suitable due to the smaller size.
Many lighting installations are of the general lighting type which allows for ﬂexibility in positioning work stations but the energy consumption is typically higher than that of localised or local lighting.
The standard “EN12464-1:2011, Light and lighting – Lighting of workplaces – Part 1: Indoor work places” speciﬁes recommendations for lighting solutions in most indoor work places, in terms of quantity and quality of illumination for people with normal visual capacity.This standard is relevant and applicable across the EU.