types of foundation

The two main types of foundation are :

  • Shallow foundation (spread foundation)
    • Isolated footing
    • Combined footing
  • Deep foundation
    • Pile foundation
    • Pier foundation

Shallow foundation

Depth of foundation is less than or equal to its width.

Isolated footing

  • In framed structures where several columns are to be constructed, isolated footings can be adopted.
  • The columns involved can be provided with masonry or concrete footing.
  • If masonry footing is provided, steps are given and the foundation area is thus increased so that the stresses developed at the base is within the limit.
  • In case of masonry footing, the projection of each step must be ½ brick thick and each step is made of 1 or 2 bricks put together.

Combined footing:

  • This type of footing is adopted when the space between two columns is so small that the foundation for individual columns will overlap.
  • Combined footings are proportioned in such a way that the center of gravity of the loads coincides with the center of gravity of the foundation. Hence these footings have either a trapezoidal or a rectangular shape.

Pile foundation

  • A slender, structural member consisting steel or concrete or timber.
  • It is installed in the ground to transfer the structural loads to soils at some significant depth below the base of the structure.
  • Pile is an element of construction used as foundation. It may be driven in the ground vertically or with some inclination to transfer the load safely.

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