Buildings should be designed to have protection against earthquakes in minor earthquakes without damage, because they may occur almost everywhere. For major earthquakes, it may not be economical to prevent all damage but collapse should be precluded.
Because an earthquake and a high wind are not likely to occur simultaneously, building codes usually do not require that buildings be designed for a combination of large seismic and wind loads. Thus, designers may assume that the full strength of wind bracing is also available to resist drift caused by earthquakes.
Shaking of buildings produced by temblors, however, is likely to be much severer than that caused by winds. Consequently, additional precautions must be taken to protect against earthquakes. Because such protective measures will also be useful in resisting unexpectedly high winds, such as those from tornadoes, however, it is advisable to apply aseismic design principles to all buildings in protection against earthquakes .
protection against earthquakes principles require that collapse be avoided, oscillations of buildings damped, and damage to both structural and nonstructural components minimized. Nonstructural components are especially liable to damage from large drift. For example, walls are likely to be stiffer than structural framing and therefore subject to greater seismic forces. The walls, as a result, may crack or collapse. Also, they may interfere with planned actions of structural components and cause additional damage. Consequently, aseismic design of buildings should make allowance for large drift, forexample, by providing gaps between adjoining buildings and between adjoining building components not required to be rigidly connected together and by permitting sliding of such components. Thus, partitions and windows should be free to move in their frames so that no damage will occur when an earthquake wracks the frames. Heavy elements in buildings, such as water tanks, should be ﬁrmly anchored to prevent them from damaging critical structural components. Displacement of gas hot water heaters is a common cause of gas ﬁres following earthquakes.
Earthquakes are produced by sudden release of tremendous amounts of energy within the earth by a sudden movement at a point called the hypo center. (The point on the surface of the earth directly above the hypocenter is called the epicenter.) The resulting shock sends out longitudinal, vertical, and transverse vibrations in all directions, both through the earth’s crust and along the surface, and at different velocities. Consequently, the shock waves arrive at distant points at different times. As a result, the ﬁrst sign of the advent of an earthquake at a distant point is likely to be faint surface vibration of short duration as the ﬁrst longitudinal waves arrive at the point. Then, severe shocks of longer duration occur there, as other waves arrive for protection against earthquakes.
Movement at any point of the earth’s surface during a temblor may be recorded with seismographs and plotted as seismograms, which show the variation with time of displacements. Seismograms of past earthquakes indicate that seismic wave forms are very complex.
Ground accelerations are also very important, because they are related to the inertial forces that act on building components during an earthquake. Accelerations are recorded in accelerograms, which are a plot of the variation with time of components of the ground accelerations. Newton’s law relates acceleration to force :
where F= force, lb
M= mass accelerated
a= acceleration of the mass, ft/s2
W= weight of building component accelerated, lb
g=acceleration due to gravity= 32.2 ft/s2
For study of the behavior of buildings in past earthquakes and application of the information collected to contemporary aseismic design, it is useful to have some quantitative means for comparing earthquake severity. Two scales, the Modiﬁed Mercalli and the Richter, are commonly used in the United States.
The Modiﬁed Mercalli scale compares earthquake intensity by assigning values to human perceptions of the severity of oscillations and extent of damage to buildings. The scale has 12 divisions. The severer the reported oscillations and damage, the higher is the number assigned to the earthquake intensity
The Richter scale assigns numbers M to earthquake intensity in accordance with the amount of energy released, as measured by the maximum amplitude of ground motion:
- M= earthquake magnitude 100 km from epicenter
- A= maximum amplitude of ground motion, micrometers
- D= distance, km, from epicenter to point where A is measured
The larger the ground displacement at a given location, the higher the value of the number assigned on the Richter scale. A Richter magnitude of 8 corresponds approximately to a Modiﬁed Mercalli intensity of XI, and for smaller intensities, Richter scale digits are about one unit less than corresponding Mercalli Roman numerals.
Effects of Ground Conditions
The amplitude of ground motion at a speciﬁc location during an earth quake depends
not only on distance from the epicenter but also on the types of soil at the location.(Some soils suffer a loss of strength in an earthquake and allow large, uneven foundation settlements, which cause severe property damage.) Ground motion usually is much larger in alluvial soils (sands or clays deposited by ﬂowing water)than in rocky areas or diluvial soils (material deposited by glaciers). Reclaimed land or earth ﬁlls generally undergo even greater displacements than alluvial soils. Consequently, in selection of sites for structures in zones where severe earthquakes are highly probable during the life of the structures, preference should be given to sites with hard ground or rock to considerable depth, with sand and gravel as a less desirable alternative and clay as a poor choice. as per building codes
During an earthquake, the ground may move horizontally in any direction and up
and down, shifting the building foundations correspondingly. Inertial forces,or seismic loads, on the building resist the displacements. Major damage usually is caused by the horizontal components of these loads, inasmuch as vertical structural members and connections generally have adequate strength to resist the vertical components. Hence, as for wind loads, buildings should be designed to resist the maximum probable horizontal component applied in any direction. Vertical components of force must be considered in design of connections in high mass prefabricated elements such as precast concrete slabs and girders.