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Civil Engineering

what is mortar

Mortar is composed of a cementitious material, fine aggregate, sand, and water. They are used for bedding unit masonry, for plasters and stuccoes, and with the addition of coarse aggregate, for concrete. Here consideration is given primarily to those mortars used for unit masonry and plasters. Properties of mortars vary greatly, being dependent on the …

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what is portland cement

Portland cement, the most common of the modern cements, is made by carefully blending selected raw materials to produce a finished material meeting the requirements of ASTM C150 for one of eight specific cement types. Four major compounds [lime (CaO), iron (Fe2O3), silica (SiO2), and alumina (Al2O3)] and two minor compounds [gypsum (CaSO4  2H2O) …

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types of cementitious materials

There are many types of cementitious materials s and numerous ways of classification. One of the simplest classifications is by the chemical constituent that is responsible for the setting or hardeningofthe cement. On this basis,the silicate and aluminate cements, wherein the setting agents are calcium silicates and aluminates, constitute the most important group of modern …

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protection against earthquakes

Buildings should be designed to have protection against earthquakes in minor earthquakes without damage, because they may occur almost everywhere. For major earthquakes, it may not be economical to prevent all damage but collapse should be precluded. Because an earthquake and a high wind are not likely to occur simultaneously, building codes usually do not …

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risk management in construction

After the risk of a hazard has been assessed, the building designers and contractors, guided by building-code, design standards, zoning-code, and health-agency specifications and exercising their best judgment, should decide on an acceptable level for the risk management in construction . With this done, they should then select a cost-effective way of avoiding the hazard, …

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construction scheduling

Normally, a client asks the architect for an estimate of the construction time for the project. The client can then incorporate this estimate in the overall development construction scheduling The contractor should prepare a detailed construction schedule for use in administering the work of subcontractors and the contractor’s own forces. The contractor should be requested …

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definition of project phases

The definition of project phases of development for a particular project from initial studies through post construction should be understood by the client and outlined thoroughly in the client-A/E agreement. The most-often-used phases of development include the following: Feasibility Studies. To assist the client in determining the scope of the project and the extent of …

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construction team

Architecture is a process involving multidisciplinary input by many professionals CONSTRUCTION TEAM . Comprehensive design services in the professional disciplines of planning, architecture, landscape architecture, interior design, and civil, structural, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, and fire protection engineering are offered within one organization by some large architect-engineer (A/E) and engineer-architect(E/A)firms. Smaller architectural firms retain the se …

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zoning codes

zoning codes are established under the police powers of the state, to protect the health, welfare, and safety of the public. Zoning, however, primarily regulates land use by controlling types of occupancy of buildings,building height, and density and activity of population in specific parts of a jurisdiction. Zoning codes are usually developed by a planning …

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