Civil Engineering

shallow foundations

A shallow foundations are often selected when the structural load will not cause excessive settlement of the underlying soil layers. In general, shallow foundations are more economical to construct than deep foundations. Common types of shallow foundations are listed in Table 6.2 and described below Spread Footings, Combined Footings, and Strip Footings. These types of …

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temporary retaining walls

Temporary retaining walls are often used during construction, such as for the support of the sides of an excavation that is made below-grade in order to construct the building foundation. If the temporary retaining wall has the ability to develop the active wedge, then the basic active earth pressure principles described in the previous sections …

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sheet pile retaining walls

Sheet pile retaining walls are widely used for waterfront construction and consist of interlocking members that are driven into place. Individual sheet piles come in many different sizes and shapes. Sheet piles have an interlocking joint that enables the individual segments to be connected together to form a solid wall. Many different types of design …

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what retaining wall

A retaining wall is defined as a structure whose primary purpose is to provide lateral support for soil or rock. In some cases, such as basement walls and certain types of bridge abutments, it may also support vertical loads. The more common types of retaining walls are shown in below Fig. and include gravity walls, …

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thin shell structures

A structural membrane or thin shell structures is a curved surface structure. Usually, it is capable of transmitting loads in more than two directions to supports. It is highly efficient structurally when it is so shaped, proportioned, and supported that it transmits the loads without bending or twisting.A membrane or a shell is defined by …

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what is a roof truss

A roof truss is a coplanar system of structural members joined together at their ends to form a stable framework. If small changes in the lengths of the members due to loads are neglected, the relative positions of the joints cannot change. Characteristics of Trusses Three bars pinned together to form a triangle represents the …

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types of structural loads

External loads on a structure may be classified in several different ways. In one classification in types of structural loads , they may be considered as static or dynamic. Static loads are forces that are applied slowly and then remain nearly constant. One example is the weight, or dead load, of a floor or roof …

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aluminum alloy designations

The aluminum alloy designations may be classified: (1) as cast and wrought, and (2) as heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. Wrought alloys can be worked mechanically by such processes as rolling, extruding, drawing, or forging. Alloys are heat-treatable if the dissolved constituents are less soluble in the solid state at ordinary temperatures than at elevated temperatures, thereby …

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corrosion of iron and steel

Corrosion of iron and steel metals is caused by the tendency of iron (anode) to go into solution in water as ferrous hydroxide and displace hydrogen, which in turn combines with dissolved oxygen to form more water. At the same time, the dissolved ferrous hydroxide is converted by more oxygen to the insoluble ferric hydroxide, …

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what is polymer concrete

Plastics with long-chain molecules, called polymer concrete , are used in several ways to enhance concrete properties: replacement of portland cement, incorporation in a mix as an admixture, and impregnating hardened concrete. Polymer concretes, such as methyl methacrylate and unsaturated polyester, in which a polymer replaces portland cement may have more than double the strength …

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