Civil Engineering

shallow foundations

A shallow foundations are often selected when the structural load will not cause excessive settlement of the underlying soil layers. In general, shallow foundations are more economical to construct than deep foundations. Common types of shallow foundations are listed in Table 6.2 and described below Spread Footings, Combined Footings, and Strip Footings. These types of …

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sheet pile retaining walls

Sheet pile retaining walls are widely used for waterfront construction and consist of interlocking members that are driven into place. Individual sheet piles come in many different sizes and shapes. Sheet piles have an interlocking joint that enables the individual segments to be connected together to form a solid wall. Many different types of design …

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aluminum alloy designations

The aluminum alloy designations may be classified: (1) as cast and wrought, and (2) as heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. Wrought alloys can be worked mechanically by such processes as rolling, extruding, drawing, or forging. Alloys are heat-treatable if the dissolved constituents are less soluble in the solid state at ordinary temperatures than at elevated temperatures, thereby …

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what is polymer concrete

Plastics with long-chain molecules, called polymer concrete , are used in several ways to enhance concrete properties: replacement of portland cement, incorporation in a mix as an admixture, and impregnating hardened concrete. Polymer concretes, such as methyl methacrylate and unsaturated polyester, in which a polymer replaces portland cement may have more than double the strength …

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