basics of electrical

CURRENT

Given an appropriate external force, the movement of electrons is from negatively charged atoms to positively charged atoms. This flow of electrons is called current (I). The symbol “I” is used to represent current. The amount of current is the sum of the charges of the moving electrons past a given point. An electron has …

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ATOMS

An atom is the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element. Each of the known 110 elements has atoms that are different from the atoms of all other elements. This gives each element a unique atomic structure. According to the classic Bohr model, an atom is visualized as having a …

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MATTER, ELEMENTS AND COMPOUNDS

Matter is anything that occupies space and has weight. It may be found in any one of three states: solid, liquid, or gas. An element is the basic building block of nature. It is a substance that cannot be reduced to a simpler substance by chemical means. Examples of elements are gold, silver. The chemical …

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fixed and variable resistors

A Linear resistor is one whose resistance doesn’t vary with the flow of current through it. The current through it, will always be proportional to the voltage applied across it. Linear resistors are further classified as Fixed and Variable resistors. Variable resistors are those whose values can be varied manually, according to the requirement. A …

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resistor color coding

A process called resistor color coding is used to determine the value of resistance for a resistor, just as shown in the below figure. A resistor is coated with four color bands where each color determines a particular value. The below table shows a list of values which each color indicates. The first two colored …

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what is inverting amplifier

inverting amplifier is One of the more popular circuit configurations of the op-amp, because of its simplicity, shown in below Figure . The input signal to be amplified is connected to the inverting terminal, while the noninverting terminal is grounded. It will now be shown how it is possible to choose an (almost) arbitrary gain …

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operational amplifier

An operational amplifier is an integrated circuit, that is, a large collection ofindividual electric and electronic circuits integrated on a single silicon wafer. An operational amplifier—or op-amp—can perform a great number of operations, such as addition, filtering, and integration, which are all based on the properties of ideal amplifiers and of ideal circuit elements. The …

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ideal op amp characteristics

One of the most important functions in electronic instrumentation is that of amplification (ideal op amp characteristics ).The need to amplify low-level electric signals arises frequently in a number of applications. Perhaps the most familiar use of amplifiers arises in converting the low-voltage signal from a cassette tape player, a radio receiver, or a compact …

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thevenin theorem

one of the most important topics in the analysis of electric circuits is the concept of an equivalent circuit. thevenin theorem show that it is always possible to view even a very complicated circuit in terms of much simpler equivalent source and load circuits, and that the transformations leading to equivalent circuits are easily managed, …

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mesh current method

mesh currents method is circuit analysis method. In the mesh current method, a current flowing through a resistor in a specified direction defines the polarity of the voltage across the resistor, and that the sum of the voltages around a closed circuit must equal zero, by KVL. Once a convention is established regarding the direction …

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