# basics of electrical

## fixed and variable resistors

A Linear resistor is one whose resistance doesn’t vary with the flow of current through it. The current through it, will always be proportional to the voltage applied across it. Linear resistors are further classified as Fixed and Variable resistors. Variable resistors are those whose values can be varied manually, according to the requirement. A …

## resistor color coding

A process called resistor color coding is used to determine the value of resistance for a resistor, just as shown in the below figure. A resistor is coated with four color bands where each color determines a particular value. The below table shows a list of values which each color indicates. The first two colored …

## what is inverting amplifier

inverting amplifier is One of the more popular circuit configurations of the op-amp, because of its simplicity, shown in below Figure . The input signal to be amplified is connected to the inverting terminal, while the noninverting terminal is grounded. It will now be shown how it is possible to choose an (almost) arbitrary gain …

## operational amplifier

An operational amplifier is an integrated circuit, that is, a large collection ofindividual electric and electronic circuits integrated on a single silicon wafer. An operational amplifier—or op-amp—can perform a great number of operations, such as addition, filtering, and integration, which are all based on the properties of ideal amplifiers and of ideal circuit elements. The …

## ideal op amp characteristics

One of the most important functions in electronic instrumentation is that of amplification (ideal op amp characteristics ).The need to amplify low-level electric signals arises frequently in a number of applications. Perhaps the most familiar use of amplifiers arises in converting the low-voltage signal from a cassette tape player, a radio receiver, or a compact …

## thevenin theorem

one of the most important topics in the analysis of electric circuits is the concept of an equivalent circuit. thevenin theorem show that it is always possible to view even a very complicated circuit in terms of much simpler equivalent source and load circuits, and that the transformations leading to equivalent circuits are easily managed, …

## mesh current method

mesh currents method is circuit analysis method. In the mesh current method, a current flowing through a resistor in a specified direction defines the polarity of the voltage across the resistor, and that the sum of the voltages around a closed circuit must equal zero, by KVL. Once a convention is established regarding the direction …

## ohm’s law definition

When electric current flows through a metal wire or through other circuit elements, it encounters a certain amount of resistance, the magnitude of which depends on the electrical properties of the material. practically all circuit elements exhibit some resistance; as a consequence, current flowing through an element will cause energy to be dissipated in the …

## what is electric power

The definition of voltage as work per unit charge lends itself very conveniently to the introduction of power. Recall that power is defined as the work done per unit time. Thus, the power P either generated or dissipated by a circuit element can be represented by the following relationship: The electric power generated by an …

## kirchhoff’s voltage law

The principle underlying kirchhoff’s voltage law KVL is that no energy is lost or created in an electric circuit; in circuit terms, the sum of all voltages associated with sources must equal the sum of the load voltages, so that the net voltage around a closed circuit is zero. The principles of conservation of energy …