VDI 2221

An appropriate method for a structured design process is defined by VDI guideline 2221 . One of the most important steps is the precise definition of functions. In order to guarantee a thorough understanding of the product requirements at the very beginning of its development, functional analysis must be organised involving experts from all disciplines …

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what is undercoating

Undercoats provide cover and a good base for the finishing coat. Most undercoats are based on alkyd resins or acrylic emulsions

what does paint primer do

The primer must adhere well to the substrate, offer protection from deterioration or corrosion and provide a good base for the undercoat. To ensure adhesion, the substrate surface must be free of loose or degraded material. Appropriate systems are indicated in Table 15.1. For use on timber, primers may be oils, alkyd resins or acrylic …

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components of paint

Paints consist of a blend of components, each with their specific function. Commonly, these include the binder (or medium), solvent, base, extenders, pigments and driers, although other additives may be incorporatedinto specialist paints. The binder solidifies to produce the paint film. Traditionally, the binder was natural linseed oil, which set by gradual oxidation upon exposure …

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what is cellulose insulation

Cellulose insulation is manufactured from shredded recycled paper and other organic waste. It is treated with borax for flammability and smouldering resistance; this also makes it unattractive to vermin, and resistant to insects, fungus and dry rot. Unlike mineral fibre and glass fibre insulation it does not cause skin irritation during installation. Recycled cellulose has …

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cellular glass

Cellular or foamed glass (CG) is manufactured from a mixture of crushed glass and fine carbon powder which, upon heating to 1000°C, causes the carbon to oxidise, creating bubbles within the molten glass.The glass is annealed, cooled and finally cut to size. The black material is durable, non-combustible, easily worked and has a high compressive …

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what is glass wool

Glass wool is made by the Crown process , which is similar to the process used for mineral wool. A thick stream of glass flows from a furnace into a forehearth and by gravity into a rapidly rotating steel alloy dish, punctured by hundreds of fine holes around its perimeter. The centrifugal force expels the …

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what is calcium silicate board

Calcium silicate boards are manufactured from silica with lime and/or cement, usually incorporating cellulose fibres or softwood pulp and mica or exfoliated vermiculite filler, to produce a range of densities.The high-density material is laminated under steam and pressure, while the lower-density material is produced by rolling followed by curing in an autoclave.Calcium silicate boards, like …

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Glassfibre-reinforced gypsum (GRG) combines the non-combustibility of gypsum plaster with the reinforcing strength of glass fibres. Products contain typically 5% of the standard E-glass fibres, which considerably improve impact as well as fire resistance. Commercial GRG products are available as standard panels, encasement systems for the fire protection of steel and decorative wall panels. As …

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grc cladding

Glassfibre-reinforced concrete (GRC) is a material that was developed in the early 1970s by the Building Research Establishment. The standard material is produced from a mixture of alkali-resistant glass fibres with Portland cement, sand aggregate and water.Admixtures such as pozzolanas, superplasticisers and polymers are usually incorporated into the mix to give the required fabrication or …

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