# غير مصنف

## Kirchhoff’s current law

In 1847, G. R. Kirchhoff extended Ohm’s law with two important statements that are referred to as Kirchhoff’s laws. The first law, known as Kirchhoff’s current law, states the following: The algebraic sum of all the currents entering and leaving a junction is equal to 0.

## runway threshold markings

Runway threshold markings identify to the pilot the beginning of the runway that is safe and available for landing. Runway threshold markings begin 20 ft from the runway threshold itself. Runway threshold markings consist of two series of white stripes, each stripe 150 ft in length and 5.75 ft in width, separated about the centerline …

## runway edge lights

Runway edge lighting systems outline the edge of runways during nighttime and reduced visibility conditions. Runway edge lights are classified by intensity, high intensity (HIRL), medium intensity (MIRL), and low intensity (LIRL). LIRLs are typically installed on visual runways and at rural airports. MIRLs are typically installed on visual runways at larger airports and on …

## battery ignition system

Battery ignition system has the following elements Primary Ignition Circuit(low voltage) Battery Ignition switch Primary windings of coil Contact breaker capacitor Secondary Ignition Circuit ( high voltage) Secondary windings of coil Distributor cap and rotor (if the vehicle is so equipped) Spark plug wires & Spark plugs

## TYPES OF CHIPS

In a metal cutting operation is carried out in machine shop. Chips are separated from the workpiece to impart the required size and shape to the workpiece. The type of chips edge formed is basically a function of the work material and cutting conditions. The chips that are formed during metal cutting operations can be …

## lux level calculation

It is often desirable to calculate the amount of light that will result from a design. While seldom required in residential design, lighting calculations are critical to the success of lighting designs in most nonresidential buildings— schools, offices, stores, and most other commercial and institutional building types. In modern design, it is common to talk …

## what is a luminaire ?

A luminaire is any device that includes a lampholder and the means of electrification and support for that device. Lighting fixtures are luminaires that are permanently attached to a building. In other words, a table lamp is a luminaire but not a fixture Types of LUMINAIRE Direct luminaires Indirect luminaires Diffuse luminaires Direct/indirect luminaires Asymmetric …

## Metal Forming

Large group of manufacturing processes in which plastic deformation is used to change the shape of metal workpieces The tool, usually called a die, applies stress that exceed the yield strength of the metal The metal takes a shape determined by the geometry of the die Material Properties in Metal Forming Desirable material properties Low …

## Geometric Design of Highways

Definition of Geometric Design : geometric design of highways deals with the dimensions and layout of visible features of the highway. Geometric design fulfills the requirements of the driver and the vehicle, such as comfort, efficiency and safety. Goals of geometric design Maximize the comfort, safety and economy of facilities. Provide efficiency in traffic operation. …

## Engineering Risk Management

Engineering Risk management is the identification, assessment and prioritization of risks, followed by a coordinated and economical application of resources to minimize or control the probability of occurrence and the impact of negative events, as well as to maximize the realization of opportunities. What is Project Risk? Uncertain events or Conditions Effect on the Project …