The different ways to conserve / save water in plumbing are listed below:
- water pressure in water distribution system should be limited to 80 psi or 55 m of water column in order to remove water hammer, unnecessary use of water, splashing, excessive discharge of pressure relief valves, and to protect appliance valves. Hence reduce the pressure in the distribution line by providing Pressure Reducing Valves (PRVs) to regulate and to save water consumption. As recommended the pressure at any fixture unit shall not exceed 2.5 – 3 bar.
- The below Table from IS 12183 (Part 1) : 1987 – Reaffirmed in 2004, recommends the rate flow for various fixture units. Hence fixtures which satisfy the minimum flow rate should be used to save water consumption in any building.
- Water conservation products such as Automatic taps, Flushometers, Pint flush urinals, high efficiency toilets and water saving shower heads can also be used. Standard showerheads use about 11 lpm and performance shower heads use about 8 lpm. The older toilets flush with about 13 litres per flush. New high-efficiency dual flush toilets use less than 6 litres per flush.
- Leakages Check for leakage in the pipe line and faucets and seal them. It is estimated that faucet leaks a drop per second will account to 15- 30 litres per day.
- Water meters – It is important to install water meters in key pipe line connection. This will help measure the water usage and can help in measuring output of any efforts to conserve water.