The FAA has grouped runways for marking purposes into three classes: (1) visual, or “basic” runways, (2) nonprecision instrument runways, and (3) precision instrument runways. The visual runway is a runway with no straight-in instrument approach procedure and is intended solely for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures. The nonprecision instrument runway is one having an existing instrument approach procedure utilizing air navigation facilities with only horizontal guidance (typically VOR or GPS-based RNAV approaches without vertical guidance) for which a straight-in nonprecision approach procedure has been approved. A precision instrument runway is one having an existing instrument approach procedure utilizing a precision instrument landing system or approved GPS-based RNAV (area navigation) or RNP (required
navigation performance) precision approach. Runways that have a published approach based solely on GPS-based technologies are known as GPS runways.
Runway markings include runway designators, centerlines, threshold markings, aiming points, touchdown zone markings, and side stripes. Depending on the length and class of runway and the type of aircraft operations intended for use on the runway, all or some of the above markings are required. below Table provides the marking requirements for visual, nonprecision, and precision runways.
below Figure illustrates the required marking for precision runways.