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principle of carburetor

Both air and gasoline are drawn through the carburetor and into the engine cylinders by the suction created by the downward movement of the piston. This suction is due to an increase in the volume of the cylinder and a consequent decrease in the gas pressure in this chamber. It is the difference in pressure between the atmosphere and cylinder that causes the air to flow into the chamber. In the carburetor, air passing into the combustion chamber picks up discharged from a tube. This tube has a fine orifice called carburetor jet that is exposed to the air path.
The rate at which fuel is discharged into the air depends on the pressure difference or pressure head between the float chamber and the throat of the venturi and on the area of the outlet of the tube. In order that the fuel drawn from the nozzle may be thoroughly atomized, the suction effect must be strong and the nozzle outlet comparatively small. In order to produce a strong suction, the pipe in the carburetor carrying air to the engine is made to have a restriction. At this restriction called throat due to increase in velocity of flow, a suction effect is created. The restriction is made in the form of a venturi to minimize throttling losses.

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