Ohm’s Law defines the relationship among three fundamental quantities: current , voltage , and resistance. It states that current is directly

proportional to voltage and inversely proportional to resistance.

## E**LECTRIC CIRCUITS**

current flows from a point with an excess of electrons to a point with a deficiency of electrons. The path that the current follows is called an electric circuit.

## OHM’S LAW

In 1827, George Ohm first observed Ohm’s law, or the relationship among current , voltage, and resistance . Ohm’s law states that the current in an electric circuit is directly proportional to the voltage and inversely proportional to the resistance in a circuit. This may be expressed as follows:

Current = Voltage / Resistance or I = E / R

## APPLICATION OF OHM’S LAW

## KIRCHHOFF’S CURRENT LAW

In 1847, G. R. Kirchhoff extended Ohm’s law with two important statements that are referred to as Kirchhoff’s laws. The first law, known as Kirchhoff’s current law, states the following:

- The algebraic sum of all the currents entering and leaving a junction is equal to 0.

## KIRCHHOFF’S VOLTAGE LAW

Kirchhoff’s second law is referred to as Kirchhoff’s voltage law, and it states the following:

- The algebraic sum of all the voltages around a closed circuit equals 0.

Here is another way of stating Kirchhoff’s voltage law:

- The sum of all the voltage drops in a closed circuit equals the voltage source.

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