monolithic integrated circuits

Monolithic integrated circuits are constructed in the same manner as transistors but include a few additional steps. The integrated circuit begins with a circular silicon wafer 3 to 4 inches in diameter and about 0.010 inch thick. This serves as a substrate (base) on which the integrated circuits are formed. Many integrated circuits are formed at the same time on this wafer—up to several hundred, depending on the size of the wafer. The integrated circuits on the wafer are generally all the same size and type and contain the same number and type of components

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