Integrated Circuits

The goal of the integrated circuit is to develop a single device to perform a specific function, such as amplification or switching, thus eliminating the separation between components and circuits.

Transistors and other semiconductor devices have made it possible to reduce the size of electronic circuits because of their small size and low power consumption. It is now possible to extend the principles behind semiconductors to complete circuits as well as individual components.


The first integrated circuit was conceived by Geoffrey . Dummer, a radar scientist for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defense. He published his idea in Washington, D.C., on May 7, But by 1956, he had still failed to build a successful circuit based on his model.


Integrated circuits are classified according to their construction techniques. The more common construction techniques are monolithic, thin film, thick film, and hybrid.

Monolithic integrated circuits

Monolithic integrated circuits are constructed in the same manner as transistors but include a few additional steps. The integrated circuit begins with a circular silicon wafer 3 to 4 inches in diameter and about 0.010 inch thick. This serves as a substrate (base) on which the integrated circuits are formed. Many integrated circuits are formed at the same time on this wafer—up to several hundred, depending on the size of the wafer. The integrated circuits on the wafer are generally all the same size and type and contain the same number and type of components


An integrated circuit is a thin chip consisting of hundreds to millions of interconnected semiconductor devices, such as transistors, resistors, and capacitors.
In 2004, a typical chip size of 0.15 in.2 (1 cm2) or smaller was common, although larger sizes were also produced.


Integrated circuits are easily damaged with static electricity that is referred to as electrostatic discharge (ESD). ESD is a static discharge and occurs when two positively charged substances are rubbed together or separated, causing a transfer or electrons so that one substance becomes negatively charged. When either substance comes in contact with a conductor, an electrical current flows until it is at the same electrical potential as ground. ESD is commonly experienced more during the winter months when the environment is dry.

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