ductile cast iron

Typical structure of spheroidal cast iron

When small quantities of magnesium or cerium is added to cast iron, then graphite content is converted into nodular or spheroidal form and it is well dispersed throughout the material. The resulting structure possesses properties more like cast steel than like the other grades of cast iron. A typical structure of spheroidal cast iron is shown in above Figure Graphite is in spheroidal form instead of in flaky form. Its structure may be modified by alloys or heat treatment, as in steel to produce austenite, acicular, martensite, pearlite, and ferrite structure.Compositions of ductile cast iron are as follows:

Carbon = 3.2 to 4.2%
Silicon = 1.0 to 4.0 %
Magnesium = 0.1 to 0.8%
Nickel = 0.0 to 3.5%
Manganese = 0.5 to 0.1%
Iron = Remaining

Silicon is also used as an alloying element since it has no effect on size and distribution of carbon content. The magnesium controls the formation of graphite. But it has little influence on the matrix structure. Nickel and manganese impart strength and ductility. Ductile cast iron has high fluidity excellent castability, strength, high toughness, excellent wear resistance, pressure tightness, weldability and higher machinability in comparison to grey cast iron.

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