The gain or loss of a circuit is usually expressed in decibels (dB), a unit of measurement that was originally created as a way of expressing the hearing response of the human ear to various sound levels. A decibel is one-tenth of a bel.
When gain and attenuation are both converted to decibels, the overall gain or attenuation of an electronic circuit can be computed by simply adding the individual gains or attenuations, expressed in decibels.
It is common for electronic circuits and systems to have extremely high gains or attenuations, often in excess of 1 million. Converting these factors to decibels and using logarithms result in smaller gain and attenuation figures, which are easier to use.
Decibel Calculations. The formulas for computing the decibel gain or loss of a circuit are :