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Integrated Circuits

The goal of the integrated circuit is to develop a single device to perform a specific function, such as amplification or switching, thus eliminating the separation between components and circuits. Transistors and other semiconductor devices have made it possible to reduce the size of electronic circuits because of their small size and low power consumption. …

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Thyristors

Thyristors are a broad range of semiconductor components used for electronically controlled switches. They are semiconductor devices with a bistable action that depends on a PNPN regenerative feedback to stay turned on or off. Bistable action refers to locking onto one of two stable states. Regenerative feedback is a method of obtaining an increased output …

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Field Effect Transistors (FETs)

The junction field effect transistor (JFET) is a junipolar transistor that functions using only majority carriers. The JFET is a voltage-operated device.JFETs are constructed from N-type and P-type semiconductor materials and are capable of amplifying electronic signals, but they are constructed differently from bipolar transistors and operate on different principles. Knowing how a JFET is …

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Bipolar Transistors

A transistor is a three-element, two-junction device used to control electron flow. By varying the amount of voltage applied to the three elements, the amount of current can be controlled for purposes of amplification, oscillation, and switching. TRANSISTOR CONSTRUCTION When a third layer is added to a semiconductor diode, a device is produced that can …

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Zener Diodes

Zener Diodes are closely related to P–N junction diodes. They are constructed to take advantage of reverse current. Zener diodes find wideapplication for controlling voltage in all types of circuits. ZENER DIODE CHARACTERISTICS in P–N junction diodes, a high reverse-bias voltage applied to a diode may create a high reverse current, which can generate excessive …

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P–N Junction Diodes

P–N Junction Diodes are the simplest type of semiconductor. They allow current to flow in only one direction. The knowledge of semiconductors that is acquired by studying diodes is also applicable to other types of semiconductor devices P–N JUNCTIONS When pure or intrinsic semiconductor material is doped with a pentavalent or trivalent material, the doped …

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Semiconductor Fundamentals

Semiconductors are the basic components of electronic equipment. The more commonly used semiconductors are the diode (used to rectify),the transistor (used to amplify), and the integrated circuit (used to switch or amplify). The primary function of semiconductor Fundamentals and devices is to control voltage or current for some desired result. Advantages of semiconductors include the …

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ELECTRONIC Engineering Basics Subjects

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Semiconductor Fundamentals Germanium Silicon P–N Junction Diodes Zener Diodes Bipolar Transistors TRANSISTOR CONSTRUCTION Field Effect Transistors (FETs) Thyristors Integrated Circuits INTEGRATED CIRCUIT CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES Monolithic integrated circuits Optoelectric Devices LINEAR ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Power Supplies Amplifier Basics Amplifier Applications Oscillators Waveshaping Circuits DIGITAL ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS Binary Number System Basic Logic Gates Simplifying Logic Circuits …

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Transformers

Transformers allow the transfer of an AC signal from one circuit to another. The transfer may involve stepping up the voltage, stepping downthe voltage, or passing the voltage unchanged. ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION MUTUAL INDUCTANCE TURNS RATIO APPLICATIONS

Reactance and Resonance Circuits

When the reactance of the inductor equals the reactance of the capacitor, it forms a resonant circuit. Resonant circuits are used in a variety of circuits in electronics. REACTANCE IN SERIES CIRCUITS REACTANCE IN PARALLEL CIRCUITS POWER INTRODUCTION TO RESONANCE