# ELECTRONIC Engineering Basics Subjects

## Flip-Flops

A flip-flop is a bistable multivibrator whose output is either a high or low voltage, a 1 or a 0. The output stays high or low until an input called a trigger is applied.The basic flip-flop is the RS flip-flop. It is formed by two cross-coupled NOR or NAND gates . The RS flip-flop has …

## BUFFER Gate

A buffer is a special logic gate that isolates conventional gates from other circuitry and provides a high driving current for heavy circuit loads or fanout. Fan-out refers to the number of input gates connected to a single logic gate output. Buffers provide noninverting input and output. A 1 in provides a 1 out and …

## EXCLUSIVE OR AND NOR GATES

A less common but still important gate is called an exclusive oR gate, abbreviated as XoR. An XOR gate has only two inputs, unlike the OR gate, which may have several inputs. However, the XOR is similar to the OR gate in that it generates a 1 output if either input is a 1. The …

## NOR GATE

A NOR gate is a combination of an inverter and an OR gate. Its name derives from its NOT-OR function. Like the NAND gate, the NOR gate can also be used to construct an AND gate, an OR gate, and an inverter. the bellow the truth table for a two- input NOR gate. Notice that …

## NAND GATE

A NAND gate is a combination of an inverter and an AND gate. It is called a NAND gate from the NOT-AND function it performs. The NAND gate is the most commonly used logic function. This is because it can be used to construct an AND gate, OR gate, inverter, or any combination of these …

## Not GATE

The simplest logic circuit is the Not gate. It performs the function called inversion, or complementation, and is commonly referred to as an inverter. The purpose of the inverter is to make the output state the opposite of the input state. The two states associated with logic circuits are 1 and 0. A 1 state …

## OR GATE

An oR gate produces a 1 output if any of its inputs are 1s. The output is a 0 if all the inputs are 0s. The output of a two-input OR gate is shown in the below truth table. An OR gate performs the basic operation of addition. The algebraic expression for the output of …

## AND GATE

The AND gate is a logic circuit that has two or more inputs and a single output. The AND gate produces an output of 1, only when all its inputs are 1s. If any of the inputs are 0s, the output is 0. The operation of the AND gate is summarized by the bellow table …

## Combinational Logic Circuits

Combinational logic circuits are circuits that combine the basic components of AND gates, OR gates, and inverters to produce more sophisticated circuits. The output of a combinational logic circuit is a function of the states of the inputs, the types of gates used, and the interconnection of the gates. The most common of the combinational …

## Sequential Logic Circuits

Sequential logic circuits consist of circuits requiring timing and memory devices. The basic building block for sequential logic circuits is the flip-flop. Flip-flops can be wired together to form counters, shift registers, and memory devices. The flip-flop belongs to a category of digital circuits called multivibrators. A multivibrator is a regenerative circuit with two active …