structural Engineering

thin joint blockwork

Thin-joint blockwork may be constructed with mortar joints of only 2–3 mm, provided that the aircrete or equivalent blocks have been manufactured to fine tolerances and on-site workmanship is good. The special rapid-setting mortar sets typically within 60 minutes and the full bond strength is achieved after only two hours, allowing more courses to be …

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concrete block types

Concrete blocks (masonry units) are defined as solid, cellular or hollow. Concrete blocks are manufactured to various work face dimensions in an extensive range of widths, offering a wide choice of load-bearing capacity and level of insulation. Manufacturer’s work size dimensions should be indicated as length, width and height, in that order, to BS EN …

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prismatic beam

Beams are used extensively in structures, primarily in flooring systems for buildings and bridges. They belong to the line element category, i.e. their longitudinal dimension is large in comparison to their cross-sectional dimensions. Whereas truss members are loaded axially, beams are loaded normal to the longitudinal direction, and carry the loading by bending and twisting …

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structural idealization

Trusses are components of larger structural systems, such as buildings, bridges, and towers. In order to evaluate the behavior under loading, one needs to identify the main structural components of the system and determine how the external load is transmitted from one component to another. This process is called “structural idealization,” it is a key …

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types of truss

Simple two-dimensional (2-D) truss structures are formed by combining one-dimensional linear members to create a triangular pattern. One starts with a triangular unit, and then adds a pair of members to form an additional triangular unit. This process is repeated until the complete structure is assembled.below Figure illustrates this process for the case where all …

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earthquake load

The structural engineer’s task is to design structures such that they can resist earthquake the ground shaking associated with an earthquake without collapsing. Since an earthquake may occur anytime during the design life, the first task is to identify the magnitude of peak ground acceleration (rga) that has a specified probability of occurrence during the …

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types of loads on structure

structures must be proportioned so that they will not fail or deform excessively under the loads they may be subjected to over their expected life. Therefore, it is critical that the nature and magnitude of the loads they may experience be accurately defined. Usually there are a number of different loads, and the question as …

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types of structures

A structure is classified according to its function and the type of elements used to make up the structure. Typical TYPES OF STRUCTURES and their corresponding functions are listed in Table TYPES OF STRUCTURES can also be classified by their Design : Solid Structures Can be made by, piling up or forming similar materials into …

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types of slab

Slabs are an important structural component where prestressing is applied. Slabs are used to provide flat or useful surfaces. ONE WAY SLAB TWO WAY SLAB FLAT SLAB WAFFLE SLAB TYPES OF ONE WAY SLAB SOLID HOLLOW RIBBED

types of foundation

The two main types of foundation are : Shallow foundation (spread foundation) Isolated footing Combined footing Deep foundation Pile foundation Pier foundation Shallow foundation Depth of foundation is less than or equal to its width. Isolated footing In framed structures where several columns are to be constructed, isolated footings can be adopted. The columns involved …

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